International Publications

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The Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics funds, designs and undertakes research to inform new and effective ways to educate people about protecting our shared public lands.

Please find below a selection of international research that has helped to inform specific education, messaging, and innovative programming that contributes to the long-term care and stewardship of shared outdoor spaces. To find out more about the international research conducted by The Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethic please visit

COVID mini report phase III
2018 Blenderman et al Disposal of pet waste
2018 Schwartz et al Will they leave what they find
2019 Zachary et al – Identifying strategies
Communicating with Recreation Visitors-Signs
2009 Effectivnesss of Trailside Signs
2017 The efficacy OF combined educational & site management
Influence of Packaging Design on Littering Behavior
2009 Influencing Park Visitor Behavior
2019 Understanding Attitudes and Support
2005 Communicating Leave No Trace Ethics and Practices
Minimizing Visitor Impacts to Protected Areas
2019 Leaving No Trace in the Irish Countryside
2018 Youth-Based Citizen Science Monitoring
2000 Forum, Choosing to Encourage or Discourage
2004 Assessing National Forest Visitors
2018 Mitigating Undesignated Trail Use
2016 Boulderers’ Attitudes and Beliefs
Improving Visitor Education in Haleakalā
Applying Recreation Ecology Science
2014 Comparing Day Users and Overnight Visitors
2010 Backcountry Visitors Leave No Trace Attitudes
2018 Will they leave what they find?
1998 An analysis of normative messaging in signs