International Publications

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The Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics funds, designs and undertakes research to inform new and effective ways to educate people about protecting our shared public lands.

Please find below a selection of international research that has helped to inform specific education, messaging, and innovative programming that contributes to the long-term care and stewardship of shared outdoor spaces. To find out more about the international research conducted by The Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethic please visit

COVID_mini-report_phase III_FINAL: The latest research carried out by the Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics and Pennsylvania State University on COVID-19.

2018 Blenderman et al Disposal of pet waste

2018_Schwartz et al_Will they leave what they find

2019_Zachary et al. Identifying strategies to reduce visitor generated waste in national parks of the United States

Communicating with Recreation Visitors_Signs

2009_Effectivnesss of Trailside Signs

2017_The efficacy of combined educational and site management actions in reducing off-trail hiking in an urban-proximate protected area

Influence of Packaging Design on Littering Behavior

2009_Influencing Park Visitor Behavior

2019_Understanding Attitudes and Support for Leave No Trace: Informing Communication Strategies With Frontcountry State Park Visitors

2005_Communicating Leave No Trace Ethics and Practices: Efficacy of Two-Day Trainer Courses

Minimizing Visitor Impacts to Protected Areas: The Efficacy of Low Impact Education Programs

2019_Leaving No Trace in the Irish Countryside: Effecting Behavioural Change of Recreationists

2018_Youth-Based Citizen Science Monitoring: Case Studies from Three National Forests

2000_Forum, Choosing to Encourage or Discourage: Perceived Effectiveness of Prescriptive Versus Proscriptive Messages Perceived Effectiveness of Prescriptive Versus Proscriptive Forum,

2004_Assessing National Forest Visitors’ Comprehension of International Symbols for Communicating Outdoor Recreation Messages

2018_Mitigating Undesignated Trail Use: The Efficacy of Messaging and Direct Site Management Actions in an Urban-Proximate Open Space Context

2016_Boulderers’ Attitudes and Beliefs Regarding Leave No Trace in Rocky Mountain National Park

Improving the Efficacy of Visitor Education in Haleakalā National Park Using the Theory of Planned Behavior

Applying Recreation Ecology Science to Sustainably Manage Camping Impacts: A Classification of Camping Management Strategies

2014_Comparing Day-Users’ and Overnight Visitors’ Attitudes Concerning Leave No Trace

2010_Backcountry Visitors’ Leave No Trace Attitudes

2018_Will they leave what they find? The efficacy of a Leave No Trace education program for youth

1998_An analysis of normative messaging in signs at recreation settings