Seven Principles

At the heart of Leave No Trace are 7 principles for reducing the damage caused by outdoor activities.

Plan Ahead and Prepare

  • Before you go check, where possible, if access is allowed and your activity is permitted in the area you wish to visit.
  • Respect any signs, regulations, policies and special concerns for the area that you wish to visit. Permits may sometimes be needed for activities on public lands.
  • Where possible travel by public transport or share cars; consider the availability of parking.
  • Ensure you have the skills and equipment needed for your activity and to cope with emergencies that could arise.
  • Check the weather forecast and always be prepared for changing weather conditions.
  • For environmental and safety reasons, and to minimise your impact on other users, keep group numbers small; split larger parties into smaller groups.

2

Be Considerate of Others

  • Respect the people who live and work in the countryside.
  • Park appropriately - avoid blocking gateways, forest entrances or narrow roads. Remember that farm machinery, local residents and the emergency services may need access at all times.
  • Take care not to damage property, especially walls, fences and crops.
  • Respect other visitors and protect the quality of their experience.
  • Let nature's sounds prevail. Keep noise to a minimum.

3

Respect Farm Animals and Wildlife

  • Dogs should be kept under close control and should only be brought onto hills or farmland with the landowner's permission. Some public areas stipulate that dogs must be kept on a lead at all times, please adhere to local guidelines.
  • Observe wild animals and birds from a distance. Avoid disturbing them, particularly at sensitive times: mating, nesting and raising young (mostly between spring and early summer).
  • Keep wildlife wild, don't feed wild animals or birds - our foods damage their health and leave them vulnerable to predators.
  • Farm animals are not pets; remain at a safe distance.

4

Travel and Camp on Durable Ground

Durable ground includes established tracks and campsites, rock, gravel, dry grasses or snow.

In popular areas:

  • Concentrate use on existing tracks and campsites.
  • To avoid further erosion, travel in single file in the middle of the track even when wet or muddy.

In more remote areas:

  • Disperse use to prevent the creation of new tracks and campsites.
  • Avoid places where impacts are just beginning to show.

If camping:

  • Protect water quality by camping at least 30m from lakes and streams.
  • Keep campsites small and discreet.
  • Aim to leave your campsite as you found it, or better.

5

Leave What You Find

  • Respect property. For example, farming or forestry machinery, fences, stone walls etc. Leave gates as you find them (open or closed).
  • Preserve the past: examine - without damaging - archaeological structures, old walls and heritage artefacts e.g. holy wells, mine workings, monuments.
  • Conserve the present: leave rocks, flowers, plants, animals and all natural habitats as you find them. Fallen trees are a valuable wildlife habitat; do not remove or use for firewood.
  • Avoid introducing non-native plants and animals e.g. zebra mussels in rivers and lakes.
  • Do not build rock cairns, structures or shelters

6

Dispose of Waste Properly

  • "If You Bring It In, Take It Out" - take home all litter and leftover food (including tea bags, fruit peels and other biodegradable foods).
  • To dispose of solid human waste, dig a hole 15-20cms deep and at least 30m from water, campsites and tracks. Cover and disguise the hole when finished.
  • Bring home toilet paper and hygiene products.
  • Wash yourself or your dishes 30m away from streams or lakes and if necessary use small amounts of biodegradable soap. Bring home any solids and scatter strained dishwater.
  • For more information on sanitation in the outdoors read the "Where to go in the outdoors" leaflet

7

Minimise the Effects of Fire

  • Fires can cause lasting impacts and be devastating to forests, natural habitats and farmland. Therefore when camping use a lightweight stove for cooking.
  • Where fires are permitted: Use established fire rings, barbecues or create a mound fire.
  • Keep fires small. Only use sticks from the ground that can be broken by hand. Do not use growing vegetation for use as firewood.
  • Avoid burning plastics or other substances: which emit toxic fumes.
  • Burn all fires to ash, put out fires completely, and then scatter cool ashes.