The objective of this section is to build a library of local Irish reserach relevant to Leave No Trace Ireland. Many research projects are currently underway accross Ireland among a variety of research themes. Please contact firstname.lastname@example.org for more details. In the meantime, we have included Leave No Trace research from the US below.
Leave No Trace focused Research from Leave No Trace America:
The Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics is data-driven in its approach to teaching people how to enjoy the outdoors responsibly. Whether conducting its own studies, or drawing from the findings of recent research, the Center utilises empirical data to ensure strong education programs, high-quality training, and sound best practices.
Existing Leave No Trace scientific literature largely aligns with the disciplines of recreation ecology, and human dimensions of natural resources (HDNR). Recreation ecology is a field of study that examines the impact of visitors to protected areas, and has provided the underpinning for Leave No Trace messaging because of its focus on recreation-related impacts. However, one of the most important causes of visitor-created impacts is impactful visitor behavior, which more closely aligns with human dimensions. HDNR research seeks to interpret humans’ attitudes towards, perceptions of, and interactions with the ecosystem. Leave No Trace-focused research of this kind is limited but increasing.
The majority of human dimensions research focused on Leave No Trace has evaluated educational effectiveness by examining communication strategies aimed at increasing knowledge to influence the behavior of recreationists. For example, studies have evaluated strategies to diminish litter (Cialdini, 1996), minimize human and wildlife conflict (Hockett & Hall, 2007), curtail removal of natural objects (Widner-Ward & Roggenbuck, 2003), and discourage off-trail hiking (Winter, 2006). However, few studies have explicitly addressed Leave No Trace and have otherwise focused on nonspecific minimum impact behaviors. An even smaller subset of HDNR studies focused on Leave No Trace has explored visitors to frontcountry areas (see Jones & Bruyere, 2004; Jones & Lowry, 2004; Leung & Attarian, 2003; Mertz, 2002; Taff et al., 2014).
Many of the previous investigations have primarily utilized knowledge of minimum-impact practices as a measure of Leave No Trace effectiveness. While some relationship does exist, a primary shortcoming of focusing on knowledge is that the assumption of a linear relationship between environmental knowledge and behavior is largely false. In other words, increasing knowledge about environmental impact does not necessarily equate to a change in an individual’s behavior.
Contemporary social scientists have begun exploring the influence that values, beliefs, attitudes, and other factors play in determining the behavior of outdoor enthusiasts within the context of Leave No Trace, based largely upon behavioral theory. Additionally, recent research has started examining the perceptions of frontcountry visitors with respect to behavioral theory and Leave No Trace. This is an important consideration in Leave No Trace-related research given the theoretical foundations that suggest attitudes are one of the important influences on behavior.
Recently the Center has been using an approach to explore Leave No Trace-related behaviors of interest which has primarily consisted of visitor observation coupled with paired survey data. This methodology provides the opportunity to ask study participants what they would do while also observing what they actually do in a park or protected area context. Through a multi-method, experimental design including unobtrusive observation, and paired visitor survey data collection, these kinds of studies allow for the examination of attitudes and motivations that lead to a reduction of recreation-related impact.
Latest Research Findings:
Undesignated Trail Management and Messaging Study
Current research efforts:
Bouldering Research –
Bouldering in Rocky Mountain National Park has become increasingly popular, and the Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics is conducted research which aimed to gain a baseline understanding of boulderers’ attitudes and behaviors toward the climbing environment, other boulderers, and other park visitors. Through a grant from the Access Fund Center researchers collected data for a 10-day period in October 2015. Though data analysis has just begun, data gathered from this study will be used to develop awareness and education programs and materials to help boulderers minimize their potential impacts to natural, cultural, and social resources in Rocky Mountain National Park and beyond. Results from the study may also help inform park officials who are making future management decisions for bouldering activities.
Undesignated Trail Use Management Research –
The Center, in conjunction with Penn State University, completed data collection in the summer of 2015 for a study focused on curbing undesignated trail use in natural areas. Due to its methodology, the study is unique in the Leave No Trace scientific literature. The experimental design utilized both visitor surveys and field observation of trail users responses to a suite of five treatments and controls designed to keep trail users on
agency-designated trails. The data, collected over a 30-day period, included over 2200 observations of individual trail users, and garnered nearly 150 paired survey responses, which will allow for comparative analysis of reported behavior and observed behavior. Data analysis began this fall, followed by a full technical report in spring 2016.
Youth Focused Research –
The Center has partnered with Penn State University researchers to conduct a youth-focused study in conjunction with the Outdoor School (ODS) at the Shavers Creek Environmental Learning Center in Pennsylvania. The purpose of the proposed research is to gain understanding of youth perceptions toward Leave No Trace educational practices promoted through the Center’s Promoting Environmental Awareness in Kids (PEAK) program, and associated behaviors, by:
* Specifically examining Leave No Trace-related behaviors with youth at Penn State’s Shaver’s Creek Environmental Learning Center’s – Outdoor School, to determine the effectiveness of PEAK-based educational strategies.
* Specifically examining attitudes and knowledge of specific Leave No Trace practices among youth at ODS.
This study will employ an experimental, equivalent control-group design. Behavior will be measured through direct observation. Additionally, self-reported appraisals will be collected to measure attitudes toward, and knowledge of, the specific PEAK-based Leave No Trace behavior in question. Data collection will occur in spring 2016.
Plan Ahead and Prepare
Cole, David N. 1989. Low-impact recreational practices for wilderness and backcountry. USDA Forest Service. General Technical Report. INT-265
Eunomia Research and Consulting. 2008. Guideline for Working Towards Zero Waste Events. Auckland City Council. Auckland, New Zealand.
Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics. The Leave No Trace Skills & Ethics booklet series are 20-30 page booklets that provide in-depth descriptions of low impact practices for a diverse range of recreational settings and outdoor activities: Alaska Wildlands, Caving, Deserts and Camping, Fishing, Horse Use, Lakes Region, Mountain Biking, North America, Northeast Mountains, Pacific Northwest, Rock Climbing, Rocky Mountains, Sea Kayaking, Sierra Nevada, Southeast, Western River Corridors.
Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics. Leave No Trace Courses. Master Educator Course – in-depth low impact outdoor skills training (5-day) designed for people who actively teach others. Trainer Course – in-depth low impact outdoor skills training (2-day) designed for group/trip leaders and other interested individuals. Awareness Workshop – low impact outdoor skill instruction (<1 day) for all outdoor recreationists.
Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics. 2007. Leave No Trace 101: 101 Ways to Teach Leave No Trace. Boulder, CO.
Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics. 2008. Leave No Trace Group Use brochure.
London Organizing Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games Limited. 2012. London 2012 Zero-Waste Events Protocol. www.london2012.com.
Marion, Jeffrey L., Teresa A. Martinez, and Robert D. Proudman. 2001. Trekking poles: Can you save your knees and the environment? The Register 24(5):1, 10, 11.
Martin, Steven and Kate McCurdy. 2010. Wilderness Food Storage: Are Bear-resistant Food Storage Canisters Effective? International Journal of Wilderness 16(1):13-19.
Stewart, William; Cole, David; Manning, Robert; Valliere, William; Taylor, Jonathan; Lee, Martha. 2000. Preparing for a Day Hike at Grand Canyon: What Information Is Useful?. In: Cole, David N.; McCool, Stephen F.; Borrie, William T.; O’Loughlin, Jennifer, comps. 2000. Wilderness science in a time of change conference — Volume 4: Wilderness visitors, experiences, and visitor management; 2000 May 23 –27; Missoula, MT. Proceedings RMRS-P-15-VOL-4. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 221-225 Available at: http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/22029
Stoner, Mary A., Kelly, M. Hanlon, S. 1993. Techniques and equipment for wilderness travel with stock. USDA Forest Service. 9323-2839-MTDC. 60 p.
Travel and Camp on Durable Surfaces
Belnap, Jayne. 2003. The world at your feet: Desert biological soil crusts. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 1(5):181-189.
Camp, R.J., Knight, R.L. 1998. Effects of rock climbing on cliff plant communities at Joshua Tree National Park, California. Conservation Biology, 12 (6), 1302-1306
Cole, David N. 2004. Impacts of hiking and camping on soils and vegetation: a review. In: Buckley, Ralf (ed.) Environmental impacts of ecotourism. CAB International, Wallingford UK. pgs 41-60.
Cole, D. 1990. Trampling disturbance and recovery of cryptogamic soil crusts in Grand Canyon National Park. Great Basin Naturalist 20:321-326
Cole, David N. 1993. Trampling effects on mountain vegetation in Washington, Colorado, New Hampshire, and North Carolina. USDA Forest Service Res. Pap. INT-464. 56p.
Cole, D. N., Spildie, D. R. 1998. Hiker, horse and llama trampling effects on native vegetation in Montana, USA. Journal of Environmental Management 53 (1) :61-71.
Cole, D.N., 1995. Experimental trampling of vegetation. I. Relationship between trampling intensity and vegetation response. Journal of Applied Ecology 32 :203-214.
Cole, David N. 1995. Recreational trampling experiments: effects of trample weight and shoe type. Research Note INT-RN-425. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station 4p. Available at:
Cole, D.N. 1995. Disturbance of natural vegetation by camping: experimental applications of low-level stress. Environmental Management. 19 :405-416.
Cole, David and Chris Monz. 2003. Impacts of camping on vegetation: Response and recovery following acute and chronic disturbance. Environmental Management 32(6):693-705.
Cole, David N.; Monz, Christopher A. 2004. Spatial patterns of recreation impact on experimental campsites. Journal of Environmental Management 70: 73-84. Available at:
Cole, David, N. 1982. Wilderness campsite impacts: Effect of amount of use. USDA Research Paper INT-284. 34 p.
Farris, M.A., 1998. The effects of rock climbing on the vegetation of three Minnesota cliff systems. Canadian Journal of Botany 76, 1-10
Hassig, D. W. 1991. A preliminary investigation of conditions of soil and ground cover vegetation on campsites closed to use in the Adirondack High Peaks Wilderness Area (New York). Thesis. State University New York, Syracuse, New York. 77pp.
Hawkins, J. P., Roberts, C. M. 1993. Effects of recreational scuba diving on coral reefs - trampling on reef-flat communities. J. Appl. Ecol. 30 (1) :25-30
Hockett, Karen, Amanda Clark, Yu-Fai Leung, Jeffrey Marion & Logan Park. 2010. Deterring off-trail hiking in protected natural areas: Evaluating options with surveys and unobtrusive observation. Virginia Tech College of Natural Resources & Environment, Blacksburg, VA.
Jenkins, Carolyn. And Ashley Olson and Jennifer L. Ruesink. 2001. Watch Your Step: Impacts of Trampling on a Rocky Shoreline of San Juan Island, Washington. Department of Zoology, University of Washington
Kuntz, Kathryn and Douglas Larson. 2006. Influences of microhabitat constraints and rock-climbing disturbance on cliff-face vegetation communities. Conservation Biology 20(3): 821–832.
Leung, Yu-Fai, and Jeffrey L. Marion. 1996. Trail degradation as influenced by environmental factors: A state-of-the-knowledge review. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 51(2):130-136.
Leung, Yu-Fai and Jeffrey L. Marion. 1999. Spatial strategies for managing visitor impacts in National Parks. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration 17(4): 20-38.
Leung, Yu-Fai and Jeffrey L. Marion. 2000. Recreation impacts and management in wilderness: A state-of-knowledge review. In: Cole, D.N. and others (eds.), Proceedings: Wilderness Science in a Time of Change; Vol 5: Wilderness ecosystems, threats, and management, pp. 23-48; May 23-27, 1999, Missoula, MT. Proceedings RMRS-P-15-Vol-5. Ogden, UT: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. http://www.wilderness.net/library/documents/science1999/volume5/Leung_5-4.pdf
Leung, Yu-Fai and Jeffrey L. Marion. 2004. Managing impacts of campsites. In: Buckley, Ralf (ed.), Environmental Impact of Tourism, Cambridge, MA: CABI Publishing. pp. 245-258.>
Marion, Jeffrey. 2003. Camping impact management on the Appalachian National Scenic Trail. Appendix 2: Camping Management Practices. Report published by the Appalachian Trail Conference, Harper’s Ferry, WV.
Marion, Jeffrey, and David Cole. 1996. Spatial and temporal variation in soil and vegetation impacts on campsites: Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. Ecological Applications 6(2):520-530.
Marion, Jeffrey L. and Yu-Fai Leung. 2004. Environmentally sustainable trail management. In: Buckley, Ralf (ed.), Environmental Impact of Tourism, Cambridge, MA: CABI Publishing. pp. 229-244.
McClaran, Mitchel, and David Cole. 1993. Packstock in Wilderness: Use, Impacts, Monitoring, and Management. Gen. Tech. Rpt. INT-301. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Stn., Ogden, UT.
Pickering, Catherine, Wendy Hill, David Newsome, and Yu-fai Leung. 2010. Comparing hiking, mountain biking and horse riding impacts on vegetation and soils in Australia and the United States of America. Journal of Environmental Management 91:551-562.
Reid, Scott E. and Jeffrey L. Marion. 2004. An adaptive management assessment of new camping policies in Shenandoah National Park. Environmental Conservation 31(4):274-282.>
Sun, D., Liddle, M. J. 1993. A survey of trampling effects on vegetation and soil in eight tropical and subtropical sites. Environmental Management. 17 (4) :497-510.
Tread Lightly. 2012. Tread Lightly 101 Online Awareness Course. (www.treadlightly.org)
Wimpey, Jeremy & Jeffrey Marion. 2010. The influence of use, environmental and managerial factors on the width of recreational trails. Journal of Environmental Management 91:2028-2037.
Dispose of Waste Properly
Bridle, Kerry, and Jamie Kirkpatrick. 2003. Impacts of nutrient additions and digging for human waste disposal in natural environments, Tasmania, Australia. Journal of Environmental Management 69(3):299-306.
Bridle, Kerry, and Jamie Kirkpatrick. 2005. An analysis of the breakdown of paper products (toilet paper, tissues and tampons) in natural environments, Tasmania, Australia. Journal of Environmental Management 74:21-30
Brown, T. J., Ham, S. H., & Hughes, M. (2010). Picking up litter: an application of theory-based communication to influence tourist behaviour in protected areas. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18(7), 879-900.
Campbell, Jonathan, and David Gibson. 2001. The effect of seeds of exotic species transported via horse dung on vegetation along trail corridors. Plant Ecology 157:23-35.
Cilimburg, A., Monz C. & Kehoe, S. 1997. Wildland recreation and human waste: A review of problems, practices and concerns. Unpublished manuscript, National Outdoor Leadership School, Lander, WY. 31pp.
Civil, Karen and Brett McNamara. 2000. Best Practice Human Waste Management Workshop. Workshop Proceedings, Canberra & Jindabyne, Australian Alps Liaison Committee, Environment Australia.
Clow, David, Rachael Peavler, Jim Roche, Anna Panorska, James Thomas, and Steve Smith. 2011. Assessing possible visitor-use impacts on water quality in Yosemite National Park, California. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 183:197-215.
Derlet, Robert, K. Ger, John Richards, and James Carlson. 2008. Risk factors for coliform bacteria in backcountry lakes and streams in the Sierra Nevada Mountains: A 5-Year study. Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 19:82-90.
Ells, Michael, and Christopher Monz. 2011. The consequences of backcountry surface disposal of human waste in an alpine, temperate forest and arid environment. Journal of Environmental Management 92(4):1334-1337.
Ells, Michael D., Lee, Kathryn J. 2000. The fate of feces and fecal microorganisms in human waste smeared on rocks in a temperate forest environment and its impacts on public health. National Outdoor Leadership School, National Park Service, Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics, Ferris State University. 35p.
Ells, Michael D., Lee, Kathryn J. 2000. The fate of feces and fecal microorganisms in human waste deposited on snow and smeared on rocks in the alpine environment. National Outdoor Leadership School, National Park Service, Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics, Ferris State University. 54p.
Ells, Michael D., Lee, Kathryn J. 2000. The fate of feces and fecal microorganisms in human waste smeared on rocks in an arid environment and its impacts on public health. National Outdoor Leadership School, National Park Service, Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics, Ferris State University. 31p.
Hargreaves, Joanna. 2006. Laboratory Evaluation of the 3-bowl system used for washing-up eating utensils in the field. Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 17:94-102.
Jones, M. K., & Lowry, R. (2004). Effectiveness of Trailhead Education on Cleaning Up Dog Litter. City of Boulder Open Space and Mountain Parks. Available at: http://www.bouldercolorado.gov/files/openspace/pdf_gis/IndependentResear.... Boulder, CO
Ketcham, Peter. 2001. Backcountry Sanitation Manual. Green Mountain Club and the Appalachian Trail Conservancy, Harpers Ferry, WV.
Lachapelle, Paul. Sanitation in Wilderness: Balancing minimum tool policies and wilderness values. In: Cole, D and others (eds.), Proceedings: Wilderness Science in a Time of Change, 1999; Vol. 5: Wilderness ecosystems, threats, and management, pgs 141-147; Missoula, MT. Proceedings RMRS-P-15-Vol-5. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. Ogden, UT.
Land, Brenda. 1995. Remote Waste Management. USDA Forest Service, Technology & Development Program, Report 9523-1202-SDTDC.
Leffel, J. A descriptive study of human waste collection and disposal alternatives used in the National Park Service (NPS) backcountry.2003 (scroll down page a little to find pdf.)
Lenth, Benjamin, Mark Brennan, and Richard Knight. 2006. The effects of dogs on wildlife communities. Research Report to City of Boulder Open Space and Mountain Parks. Boulder, CO.
Meyer, Kathleen. 1994. How to Shit in the Woods. 2nd ed. Ten Speed Press, Berkeley, CA.
Temple, Kenneth, Anne Camper, and Gordon McFeters. 1980. Survival of two Enterobacteria in feces buried in soil under field conditions. Applied & Environmental Microbiology 40(4):794-797.
Temple, Kenneth, Anne Camper, and Robert Lucas. 1982. Potential health hazard from human wastes in wilderness. Journal of Soil & Water Conservation 37(6):357-359.
Wells, F., and W. Laurenroth. 2007. The potential for horses to disperse alien plants along recreational trails. Rangeland Ecology & Management 60:574-577.
Wilkinson, Donald, Daniel Armstrong, and Dale Blevins. 2002. Effects of wastewater and combined sewer overflows on water quality in the Blue River Basin, Kansas City, Missouri and Kansas, July 1998–October 2000. U.S. Geological Survey, Water-Resources Investigations Report 02–4107.
Leave What You Find
Belzer, Bill, and Mary Steisslinger. 1999. The box turtle: Room with a view on species decline. The American Biology Teacher 61(7):510-513.
Benton, G. (2011). Visitor Perceptions of Cultural Resource Management at Three National Park Service Sites. Visitor Studies, 14(1), 84-99.
DiVittorio, Joe, Michael Grodowitz, and Joe Snow. 2010. Inspection and Cleaning Manual for Equipment and Vehicles to Prevent the Spread of Invasive Species. Technical Memorandum No. 86-68220-07-05. USDI Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO.
Gower, Stith. 2008. Are horses responsible for introducing non-native plants along forest trails in the eastern United States? Forest Ecology & Management 256: 997-1003.
Humane Society of the United States. 2009. Should wild animals be kept as pets? Washington, D.C.
McLeod, Lianne. 2012. Wild animals as pets: Ethical issues and potential pitfalls.
Mount, Ann, and Catherine Pickering. 2009. Testing the capacity of clothing to act as a vector for non-native seed in protected areas. Journal of Environmental Management 91:168-179.
Partners in Amphibian and Reptile Conservation. 2012. Please Don’t Turn It Loose. www.parcplace.org. Pamphlet. Arizona Game & Fish Department, Phoenix, AZ.
Pickering, Catherine and Ann Mount. 2010. Do tourists disperse weed seed? A global review of unintentional human-mediated terrestrial seed dispersal on clothing, vehicles and horses. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 18(2):239-256.
Potito, Aaron, and Susan Beatty. 2005. Impacts of recreation trails on exotic and ruderal species distribution in grassland areas along the Colorado Front Range. Environmental Management 36(2):230-236.
Prinbeck, Gwenn, Denise Lach, and Samuel Chan. 2009. Exploring stakeholders’ attitudes and beliefs regarding behaviors that prevent the spread of invasive species. Environmental Education Research 17(3):341-352.
Root, Samantha, and Catherine O’Reilly. 2012. Didymo control: Increasing the effectiveness of decontamination strategies and reducing spread. Fisheries 37(10):440-448.
Schuppli, C., and D. Fraser. 2000. A framework for assessing the suitability of different species as companion animals. Animal Welfare 9:259-372.
Ward, C. and J. Roggenbuck. 2003. Understanding park visitor's responses to interventions to reduce petrified wood theft. Journal of Interpretation Research 8:1, 67-82
Western Regional Panel on Aquatic Nuisance Species. 2009. Quagga-Zebra Mussel Action Plan for Western U.S. Waters. Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force.
Widner, C.J. and Roggenbuck, J. W. 2000. Reducing the Theft of Petrified Wood at Petrified Forest National Park, Journal of Interpretation Research. Vol 5.
Wildesen, Leslie. 1982. The study of impacts to archaeological sites. Advances in Archaeological Method & Theory 5:51-96.
Wisconsin Council on Forestry. 2008. Best Management Practices for preventing the spread of invasive species by outdoor recreation activities in Wisconsin.
Wittenberg, Rudiger, and Matthew Cock (eds). 2001. Invasive Alien Species: A Toolkit of Best Prevention and Management Practices. Global Invasive Species Programme. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
Minimize Campfire Impacts
Bratton, Susan P., Stromberg, Linda L. 1982. Firewood gathering impacts in backcountry campsites in Great Smokey Mountains National Park. Environmental Management 6, 1: 63-71.
Bull, Evelyn. 2002. The Value of Coarse Woody Debris to Vertebrates in the Pacific Northwest. Gen. Tech. Rpt. PSW-GTR-181. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, LaGrande, OR.
Cole, David N. 1995. Rational behind fire building and wood gathering practices. Master Network, Leave No Trace Newsletter, National Outdoor Leadership School 7, 3:3, 12-3.
Cole, David N. and John Dalle-Molle, 1982. Managing campfire impacts in the backcountry. Research Paper. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station
Davies, Mary. 2004. What’s burning in your campfire? Garbage in, toxics out. USDA Forest Service, Technology & Development Program, Rpt. 0423-2327-MTDC, Missoula, MT.
Fenn, Dennis B., G. Jay Gogue, and Raymond E. Burge, 1976. Effects of campfires on soil properties. Ecological Services Bulletin, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service
Hall, T. E., and T. A. Farrell. 2001. Fuelwood depletion at wilderness campsites: Extent and potential ecological significance. Environmental Conservation 28:1-7.
Hammitt, William E., 1982. Alternatives to banning campfires. Parks 7, 3:8-9
Hammitt, William E., 1980. Fire rings in the backcountry: Are they necessary? Parks 5, 4:8-9
Houck, James, Andrew Scott, Jared Sorenson, and Bruce Davis. 2000. Comparison of air emissions between cordwood and wax-sawdust firelogs burned in residential fireplaces. In: Proceedings of AWMA & PNIS International Specialty Conference: Recent Advances in the Science of Management of Air Toxics, Banff, Alberta.
Jacobi, W., B. Goodrich, and C. Cleaver. 2011. Firewood transport by National and State Park campers: A risk for native or exotic tree pest movement. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry 37(3):126-138.
Marion, Jeffrey. 2003. Camping impact management on the Appalachian National Scenic Trail. Appendix 2: Camping Management Practices. Report published by the Appalachian Trail Conference, Harper’s Ferry, WV.
Reid, Scott E. and Jeffrey L. Marion. (In Press). A comparison of campfire impacts and policies in seven protected areas. Environmental Management36(1):48-58. Campfire Impacts EM paper_0.pdf web link http://www.springerlink.com/content/m533171002750054/?p=4ab021c069114deca9d4127507d3b46b&pi=3
Trickel, Robert, Nicole Wulff, and Bill Jones. 2012. Invasive species and firewood movement. Fact Sheet 5.4, Don’t Move Firewood website: www.dontmovefirewood.org
Vachowski, Brian. 1997. Leave No Trace campfires and firepans. USDA Forest Service. 9723-2815-MTDC
Access Fund. 1997. Raptors and Climbers: Guidelines for managing technical climbing to protect raptor nest sites. The Access Fund, Boulder, CO. 27pp. Available at: http://www.accessfund.org/pubs/index.php
Albert, D. M., & Bowyer, R. T. (1991). Factors Related to Grizzly Bear: Human Interactions in Denali National Park. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 19(3), 339-349.
Aitchison, S.W. 1977. Some effects of a campground on breeding birds in Arizaona. Importance, preservation, and management of riparian habitat: proceedings of a symposium. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report. RM-43. 175-182
Anderson, S.H. 1995. Recreational disturbance and wildlife populations. Wildlife and Recreation: Coexistence through management and research. Island press, Washington, DC
Anthony, R.G., Steidl, R.J., McGarigal, K. 1995. Recreation and bald eagles in the Pacific Northwest. Wildlife and Recreation: Coexistence through management and research. 223-241. Island press, Washington, DC
Bath, A., J, & Enck, J. W. (2003). Wildlife-human interactions in National Parks in Canada and the USA. NPS Social Science Review, 4(1).
Becker, B. H., Moi, C. M., Maguire, T. J., Atkinson, R., et al. (2012). Effects of hikers and boats on tule elk behavior in a national park wilderness area. Human-Wildlife Interactions, 6(1), 147-154.
Boise Climbers’ Alliance & Idaho Department of Fish and Game (1999). Guidelines for protecting cliff-nesting raptors and climbing management at the Black Cliffs, Boise Idaho. Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Nampa, ID 10pp. Available at:
Borkowski, J. J., White, P., Garrott, R. A., Davis, T., et al. (2006). Behavioral responses of bison and elk in Yellowstone to snowmobiles and snow coaches. Ecological Applications, 16(5), 1911-1925.
Boyle, S. A., & Samson, F. B. (1985). Effects of nonconsumptive recreation on wildlife: a review. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 13(2), 110-116.
Boyce, M.S., Metzgar, L.H., Peters, J.T. 1992. Bighorn sheep and horses on the Bighorn National Recreation Area: Wilderness or pasture? Wilderness Issues in the Arid Lands of the Western U.S. :51-67
Brown, C. L., Hardy, A. R., Barber, J. R., Fristrup, K. M., et al. (2012). The Effect of Human Activities and Their Associated Noise on Ungulate Behavior. PLoS One, 7(7).
Cassirer, E. Frances, Freddy, David J., Ables, Earnest D. 1992. Elk responses to disturbance by cross-country skiers in Yellowstone National Park. Wildlife Society Bulletin 20 (4) :375-381
Cole, D.N., Landres, P.B. 1995. Indirect effects of recreationists on wildlife. Chapter 11 in Knight, R.L.//Gutzwiller, K.J., editors. Wildlife and recreationists: coexistence through management and research. Island Press, Washington, D.C. Available at:
Cole, David N.; Knight, Richard L. 1991. Wildlife preservation and recreational use: conflicting goals of wildland management. In: Transactions of the 56th North American wildlife and natural resources conference 233-237pp. Available at:
Coleman, John, and Stanley Temple. 1993. Rural residents' free-ranging domestic cats: A survey. Wildlife Society Bulletin 21: 381-390.
Coleman, John, Stanley Temple, and Scott Craven. 1997. Cats and wildlife: A conservation dilemma. Texas Parks & Wildlife, Austin, TX.
Dahlgren, R. B., Korschgen, C. E. 1992. Human disturbances of waterfowl: An annotated bibliography. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C.. Resour. Pub. No. 188. 62pp.
Davidson, N. 1997. Waterbirds and recreation: considerations for the sustainable management of wetlands. Gibier Faune Sauvage("Hunting and Protected Areas in Europe: Proceedings of the International Seminar, Brussels, June 19, 1996"; Lecocq, Yves; Swift, John; Birkan, Marcel, editors). 14 (2) :211-225.
Gabrielsen, G. W., & Smith, E. N. (1995). Physiological responses of wildlife to disturbance. In R. L. Knight & K. j. Gutzwiller (Eds.), Wildlife and Recreationalists: Coexistence through Management and Research. (pp. 95-107). Washington, DC: Island Press.
Garber, S.D.; Burger, J. 1995. A 20-yr study documenting the relationship between turtle decline and human recreation. Ecological Applications 5 (4) :1151-1162.
George, S. L., & Crooks, K. R. (2006). Recreation and large mammal activity in an urban nature reserve. Biological Conservation, 133(1), 107-117.
Gibeau, M. L., Clevenger, A. P., Herrero, S., & Wierzchowski, J. (2002). Grizzly bear response to human development and activities in the Bow River Watershed, Alberta, Canada. Biological Conservation, 103(2), 227-236.
Goodrich, J.M., Berger, J. 1994. Winter recreation and hibernating black bears, Ursus americanus. Biological Conservation 67 (2) :105-110.
Gookin, J. and T. Reed. 2009. NOLS Bear Essentials: Hiking and Camping in Bear Country. Stackpole Books, Mechanicsburg, PA.
Gore, M. L., Knuth, B. A., Curtis, P. D., & Shanahan, J. E. (2006). Education programs for reducing American black bear-human conflict: indicators of success? Ursus, 17(1), 75-80.
Greeson, K. M., & Jurin, R. R. (2012). A Qualitative Study of Backcountry Recreationists‚ Perceptions on Cougar-Related Interpretive Media. Applied Environmental Education & Communication, 11(2), 57-64.
Gunther, K. A., Haroldson, M. A., Frey, K., Cain, S. L., et al. (2004). Grizzly bear-human conflicts in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem, 1992-2000. Ursus, 15(1), 10-22.
Gutzwiller, K. (1991). Assessing recreational impacts on wildlife: the value and design of experiments. Paper presented at the Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference.
Gutzwiller, K.J. 1995. Recreational disturbance and wildlife communities. Chapter 10 in Knight, R.L. Gutzwiller, K.J., editors. Wildlife and recreationists: coexistence through management and research. Island Press, Washington, D.C.
Hartley, William. 1996. Loving Nature … the Right Way: A Family Guide to Viewing and Photographing Scenic Areas and Wildlife. IntroNet Solutions, Inc. Minneapolis, MN.
Hicks, L.L., Elder, J.M.1979. Human disturbance of Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep. Journal of Wildlife Management, 43 (4), 909-915
Hockett, K., & Hall, T. (2007). The effect of moral and fear appeals on park visitors beliefs about feeding wildlife. Journal of Interpretation Research, 12(1), 5-27.
Hockett, K. S. (2000). The effectiveness of two interventions on reducing deer feeding behavior by park visitors. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
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Links to Research
Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute
Arthur Carhart National Wilderness Training Center
Coalition for Education in the Outdoors: Research Symposium Proceedings
National Environmental Health Association
National Outdoor Leadership School Research
NPS Research Learning Centers Clearinghouse
Outdoor Education Research and Evaluation Center
Outdoor Industry Association
Recreation.gov Recreation Research Links
Recreation Ecology Research Network - Learn more about Recreation Ecology! http://cnr.ncsu.edu/rern/
The Wilderness Institute – The University of Montana
Wilderdom Outdoor Education Research and Evaluation Center
Miscellaneous Internet Links
Leave No Trace History - http://www.lnt.org/sites/default/files/Leave_No_Trace_History_Paper.pdf
Leave Only Footprints – Adventure Racing and the Environment
Natural Resource Impacts of Mountain Biking
Roper Research: Outdoor Recreation in America 2003
Water Sanitation and Health (WSH) - Introduction to fact sheets on sanitation
Links to Wilderness Legislation
Map of the National Wilderness Preservation Lands
The Wilderness Act of 1964
The Wilderness Act Handbook